33. Financial risk management

33. Financial risk management

See “Risk factors” for additional details on general risk factors.

Financial risk factors

Our financial risks are managed centrally. Our finance department coordinates the access to national and international financial markets and considers and manages continuously the financial risks concerning our activities. These relate to the financial markets risk, credit risk, liquidity risk and currency risk. There are no other important risks, such as interest rate risk, because we have nearly no financial debt and have a strong cash position. We do not buy or trade financial instruments for speculative purposes.

Categories of material financial assets and liabilities:


31 December

(thousands of €)



Financial assets



Cash and cash equivalents



Restricted cash (current and non-current)



Trade receivables



R&D incentives receivables (current and non-current)



Current financial asset from share subscription agreement


Financial assets available for sale



Other amounts receivable



Total financial assets






Financial liabilities



Trade and other payables



Other non-current liabilities



Leasing debts



Tax payable



Total financial liabilities



Share subscription agreement with Gilead

We have been temporarily exposed to financial market and currency risk through our share subscription agreement with Gilead.

On 16 December 2015, Gilead Sciences, Inc. and Galapagos NV entered into a global collaboration for the development and commercialization of filgotinib, in the framework of which Gilead committed to an upfront payment of $725 million consisting of a license fee of $300 million and a $425 million equity investment in Galapagos NV by subscribing to new shares at a price of €58 per share, including issuance premium. This agreement was effectively completed and entered into force 19 January 2016 and full payment was received.

In connection with the agreement, we recognized a deferred income and an offsetting short term financial asset (derivative) of €39 million upon signing of the share subscription agreement with Gilead as required under IAS 39. This financial asset initially reflected the share premium that Gilead committed to pay above the closing stock price of Galapagos on the day of entering into the subscription agreement. This amount also represented a deferred income that is recognized in revenues at the same rhythm than the $300 million upfront payment for the license.

The fair value of this derivative financial asset was initially measured on 16 December 2015, based on the implied value of the Galapagos share at the end of January 2016, the implied volatility of the EUR/USD currency exchange rates and applicable discount rates.

Under IAS 39 the fair value of the derivative financial asset was re-measured at year end and again upon entering into force of the subscription agreement on 19 January 2016, when the financial asset expired. Variations in fair value of the financial asset were recorded in the income statement.

The decrease in the fair value of the financial asset resulting from the increase in the Galapagos share price between signing of the subscription agreement and 31 December 2015 resulted in a non-cash, fair value re-measurement of €30.6 million in the financial results. On 31 December 2015, the fair value of the financial asset was re-measured based on the implied value of the Galapagos share at the end of January 2016, the implied volatility of the EUR/USD currency exchange rates and applicable discount rates.

On 19 January 2016, the transaction was officially completed materialized by the share subscription of Gilead Biopharmaceutics Ireland Unlimited Company, of 6,760,701 new ordinary shares of Galapagos NV at a price of €58.00 per share including share premium, amounting to $425 million converted to €392,120,658 at a EUR/USD exchange rate of 1.0839.

The increase in the fair value of the financial asset resulting from the decrease in the Galapagos share price between 1 January 2016 and 19 January 2016 resulted in a positive non-cash gain of €57.5 million in the financial result of 2016.

On 19 January 2016, the value of the financial asset at maturity amounted to €65.9 million, reflecting the share premium that Gilead paid above our closing share price on the day of the capital increase. This amount was composed of (1) the initial measurement on the day of entering into the share subscription agreement for an amount of €39 million which was reported in deferred income and (2) the subsequent re-measurements of the financial asset, reported as financial result under IAS 39: €30.6 million fair value loss reported in the year 2015 and €57.5 million fair value gain reported in the first quarter of 2016, together a net fair value gain of €26.8 million. This financial asset expired on the effective date of the share subscription agreement and was derecognized through the share premium account.

Available-for-sale financial assets

On 15 July 2016, we invested €2.75 million in Pharnext, a French advanced clinical stage biopharmaceutical company developing new therapeutics for severe orphan and common neurological diseases, listed on Euronext. Galapagos has no restrictions on the sale of this equity investment and the asset is not pledged under any Galapagos’ liabilities. This investment is classified as available-for-sale equity investment which qualifies for level 1 fair value measurement based upon the closing price of the PXT securities on Euronext at each reporting date.

The market price of the Pharnext shares might face fluctuations and might be affected by a variety of factors, such as the global economic situation, the business development of competitors, sector mergers and acquisitions; it is difficult to mitigate this risk.

Liquidity risk

Our consolidated balance sheet shows an amount of €112.3 million as incurred losses at the end of 2016. Management forecasts our liquidity requirements to ensure that we have sufficient cash to meet operational needs. We have no credit lines. Such forecasting is based on realistic assumptions with regards to milestone and upfront payments to be received, taking into account our past track record, including the assumption that not all new projects that are being planned will be realized.

Credit risk

The term “credit risk” refers to the risk that counterparty will default on its contractual obligations resulting in financial loss for us.

The trade receivables consist of a limited amount of creditworthy customers, many of which are large pharmaceutical companies, spread over different geographical areas. To limit the risk of financial losses, we have developed a policy of only dealing with creditworthy counterparties.

We grant credit to our clients in the framework of our normal business activities. Usually, we require no pledge or other collateral to cover the amounts due. Management continuously evaluates the client portfolio for creditworthiness. All receivables are considered collectable, except for these for which a provision for doubtful debtors has been established.

Aging balance of receivables that are due, but that are still considered collectable





31 December

(thousands of €)



60–90 days



90–120 days



more than 120 days



Our cash and cash equivalents are invested primarily in saving and deposit accounts. Saving and deposit accounts generate a small amount of interest income. For banks and financial institutions, only independently rated parties with a minimum rating of ‘A’ are accepted at the beginning of the term.

Interest rate risk

The only variable interest-bearing financial asset is cash and cash equivalents. Changes in interest rates may cause variations in interest income and expenses resulting from short term interest-bearing assets. Management does not expect the short term interest rates to decrease significantly in the immediate foreseeable future, which limits the interest exposure on our cash and cash equivalents.

Effect of interest rate fluctuation

A 100 basis points increase in interest rates at balance sheet date would have increased profit and loss by approximately €10 million (2015: €3 million); a 100 basis points decrease in interest rates would have decreased profit and loss by approximately €10 million (2015: €3 million).

Foreign exchange risk

We are exposed to foreign exchange risk arising from various currency exposures. Our functional currency is euro, but we receive payments from our main collaboration partners AbbVie and Gilead in U.S. dollar and acquire some consumables and materials in U.S. dollars, Swiss francs, GB pounds and Croatian kuna.

To limit this risk, we attempt to align incoming and outgoing cash flows in currencies other than EUR. In addition, contracts closed by our different entities are mainly in the functional currencies of that entity, except for the alliance agreements signed with AbbVie and Gilead for which payments are denominated in U.S. dollars.

In order to further reduce this risk, we implemented a netting system in the course of 2012, which restrains intra-group payments between entities with a different functional currency.

The exchange rate risk in case of a 10% change in the exchange rate amounts to:


Year ended 31 December

(thousands of €)



Net book value



Increase in Euros – U.S. Dollars



Increase in Euros – GB Pounds



Increase in Euros – CH Francs



Increase in Euros – HR Kunas



Increase in U.S. Dollars – GB Pounds



The exchange rate risk on the U.S. dollar is primarily related to our cash and cash equivalents held in U.S. dollars.

Capital risk factors

We manage our capital to safeguard that we will be able to continue as a going concern. At the same time, we want to ensure the return to our shareholders through the results from our research and development activities.

Our capital structure consists of cash at bank and in hand and cash equivalents, financial debt (which currently we barely have: as of 31 December 2016, we have no financial debt other than finance leases and advances from Oseo, a French public organization for innovation support, for €0.1 million), and equity attributed to the holders of our equity instruments, such as capital, reserves and results carried forward, as mentioned in the consolidated statement of changes in equity.

We manage our capital structure and make the necessary adjustments in the light of changes of economic circumstances, the risk characteristics of underlying assets and the projected cash needs of the current research and development activities.

The adequacy of the capital structure will depend on many factors, including scientific progress in the research and development programs, the magnitude of those programs, the commitments to existing and new clinical CROs, the ability to establish new alliance or collaboration agreements, the capital expenditures, market developments and any future acquisition.

Neither Galapagos NV nor any of its subsidiaries are subject to any externally imposed capital requirements, other than those imposed by generally applicable company law requirements.