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33. Financial risk management

Financial risk factors

Our financial risks are managed centrally. Our finance department coordinates the access to national and international financial markets and considers and manages continuously the financial risks concerning our activities. These relate to the following financial markets risks: credit risk, liquidity risk, currency and interest rate risk. Our interest rate risk is limited because we have nearly no financial debt. In case of decreasing interest rates we will face a reinvestment risk on our strong cash and cash equivalents and current financial investments balance. We do not buy or trade financial instruments for speculative purposes.

Categories of financial assets and liabilities:


31 December

(thousands of €)



Financial assets held at fair value through profit or loss



Equity instruments



Current financial investments






Financial assets at amortized cost



Current financial investments



Cash and cash equivalents



Restricted cash (current and non-current)



Other non-current assets



Trade receivables



Total financial assets






Financial liabilities held at fair value through profit or loss



Current financial instruments






Financial liabilities at amortized cost



Trade liabilities



Lease liabilities



Total financial liabilities



The carrying amounts of trade payables and trade receivables are considered to be the same as their fair values, due to their short-term nature.

Financial assets held at fair value through profit or loss

Financial assets held at fair value through profit or loss consisted of equity instruments of listed/non-listed companies and current financial investments.

We have no restrictions on the sale of these equity instruments and the assets are not pledged under any of our liabilities. These instruments are classified as financial assets held at fair value through profit or loss. The equity investments in listed companies qualified for level 1 fair value measurement based upon the closing price of such securities on Euronext at each reporting date.

The market price of those shares might face fluctuations and might be affected by a variety of factors, such as the global economic situation, the business development of competitors, sector mergers and acquisitions; it is difficult to mitigate this risk.

The fair value of the equity instrument in the non-listed company has been determined mainly by reference to the initial transaction price (classified as level 3 in the fair value hierarchy).

Current financial investments include money market funds in EUR and USD, which all classify for level 1 fair value measurement.

Liquidity risk

Current financial investments and cash and cash equivalents amounted to €4,703.2 million on 31 December 2021. Management forecasts our liquidity requirements to ensure that we have sufficient cash to meet operational needs. We have no credit lines. Such forecasting is based on realistic assumptions with regards to milestone and upfront payments to be received, taking into account our past track record, including the assumption that not all new projects that are being planned will be realized.

All our cash and cash equivalents have only an insignificant liquidity risk as they are all convertible upon a maximum three month notice period and without incurring a significant penalty in normal market circumstances.

Credit risk

The term “credit risk” refers to the risk that counterparty will default on its contractual obligations resulting in financial loss for us.

The trade receivables consist of receivables on our collaboration partner Gilead, creditworthy pharmaceutical wholesalers and hospitals in Europe. To limit the risk of financial losses, we have developed a policy of only dealing with creditworthy counterparties.

We grant credit to our clients in the framework of our normal business activities. Usually, we require no pledge or other collateral to cover the amounts due. Management continuously evaluates the client portfolio for creditworthiness. All our receivables are considered collectable.

We applied the IFRS 9 simplified approach to measuring expected credit losses which uses a lifetime expected loss allowance for all receivables. To measure the expected credit losses, receivables have been grouped based on credit risk characteristics and the days past due. The provision for expected credit losses was not significant given that there have been no credit losses over the last three years and the high quality nature of our customers.

Aging balance of receivables that are due, but that are still considered collectable:


31 December

(thousands of €)



60 - 90 days



90 - 120 days



more than 120 days



Our cash and cash equivalents are invested primarily in current, notice and term accounts. For banks and financial institutions, only independently rated parties with a minimum rating of ‘A’ are accepted at the beginning of the term. Our current financial investments are also kept within different financial institutions and include term deposits, money market funds and treasury bills with an AAA rating. The money market funds are invested in a well-diversified portfolio of highly rated assets.

Interest rate risk

The only variable interest-bearing financial instruments are cash and cash equivalents and current financial investments. Our interest rate income is impacted by the negative interest rate environment in EUR, and the low interest rate environment in USD.

Changes in interest rates may cause variations in interest income and expenses resulting from short-term interest-bearing assets. Management does not expect the short-term interest rates to decrease significantly in the immediate foreseeable future, which limits the interest exposure on our cash and cash equivalents and current financial investments.

Effect of interest rate fluctuation

A 100 basis points increase in interest rates at balance sheet date would have increased profit or loss, and equity, by approximately €47.0 million (2020: €51.7 million); a 100 basis points decrease in interest rates would have decreased profit or loss, and equity, by approximately €47.0 million (2020: €51.7 million). These scenarios assume our entire cash portfolio would immediately reprice at the new interest rates.

Foreign exchange risk

We are exposed to foreign exchange risk arising from various currency exposures. Our principal functional currency is euro, but we receive payments from our main collaboration partner Gilead in U.S. dollars and acquire some consumables and materials in U.S. dollars, Swiss francs, and GB pounds.

To limit this risk, we attempt to align incoming and outgoing cash flows in currencies other than EUR. In addition, contracts closed by our different entities are mainly in the functional currencies of that entity, except for the alliance agreement signed with Gilead for which payments are denominated in U.S. dollars.

The exchange rate risk in case of a 10% change in the exchange rate amounts to:


31 December

Net book value (thousands of €)



Increase in Euros - U.S. Dollars



Increase in Euros - GB Pounds



Increase in Euros - CH Francs



The exchange rate risk on the U.S. dollar is primarily related to our cash and cash equivalents and current financial investments held in U.S. dollars.

Capital risk factors

We manage our capital to safeguard that we will be able to continue as a going concern. At the same time, we want to ensure the return to our shareholders through the results from our research and development activities.

Our capital structure consists of current financial investments, cash and cash equivalents, financial debt (as of 31 December 2021, we only have leasing liabilities), and equity attributed to the holders of our equity instruments, such as capital, reserves and results carried forward, as mentioned in the consolidated statement of changes in equity.

We manage our capital structure and make the necessary adjustments in the light of changes of economic circumstances, the risk characteristics of underlying assets and the projected cash needs of the current research and development activities.

The adequacy of the capital structure will depend on many factors, including scientific progress in the research and development programs, the magnitude of those programs, the commitments to existing and new clinical CROs, the ability to establish new alliance or collaboration agreements, the capital expenditures, the new commercial activities, market developments and any future acquisition.

Neither Galapagos NV nor any of its subsidiaries are subject to any externally imposed capital requirements, other than those imposed by generally applicable company law requirements.