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Risks related to product development and regulatory approval

We operate adequate standard operating procedures to secure the integrity and protection of our research and development activities and results, and the optimum allocation of our R&D budgets. The progress of the most important research and development programs is continuously monitored by our management board; they are discussed with the supervisory board at least once per quarter, and supervisory board members with expertise in clinical and scientific matters occasionally attend meetings with our scientific staff to discuss and assess such programs. Nevertheless, due to our limited resources and access to capital, we must and have in the past decided to prioritize development of certain product candidates; these decisions may prove to have been wrong and may adversely affect our business.

We are heavily dependent on the success of our candidate filgotinib. We are also dependent on the success of our other product candidates, such as GLPG2737, GLPG3667, GLPG4716, GLPG0555, GLPG3121, and GLPG4399. Filgotinib is approved for use in RA in the European Union, Great Britain and Japan and for use in UC in the European Union and Great Britain, and is currently under regulatory review for use in UC in Japan. In addition, we are heavily investing in our early-stage product pipeline, including our SIK early-stage compounds, and these drug candidates must undergo rigorous preclinical and clinical testing, the results of which are uncertain and could substantially delay or prevent the drug candidates from reaching the market.

We cannot give any assurance that any product candidate will successfully complete clinical trials or receive regulatory approval, which is necessary before it can be commercialized.

Our business and future success is substantially dependent on our ability to develop successfully, obtain regulatory approval for, and then successfully commercialize our product candidate filgotinib and our other product candidates. We are not permitted to market or promote any of our product candidates before we receive regulatory approval from the FDA, the EMA, the MHRA, the MHLW or any other comparable regulatory authority, and we may never receive such regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. We cannot give any assurances that our clinical trials for filgotinib or our other product candidates will be completed in a timely manner, or at all. If filgotinib or any other product candidate is not approved and commercialized in certain jurisdictions, we will not be able to generate any product revenues for that product candidate.

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, the EMA, the MHRA, the MHLW and other comparable regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

Clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. Results of earlier studies and trials as well as data from any interim analysis of ongoing clinical trials may not be predictive of future trial results, and failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. If we experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trial of our product candidates, the commercial prospects of our product candidates will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues from any of these product candidates will be delayed. If filgotinib or any other product candidate is found to be unsafe or has lack of efficacy, we will not be able to obtain or maintain regulatory approval for it and our business would be materially harmed.

The rates at which we complete our scientific studies and clinical trials depend on many factors, including, but not limited to, patient enrolment. Patient enrolment is a significant factor in the timing of clinical trials and is affected by many factors including competing clinical trials, clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the drug being studied in relation to other available therapies and the relatively limited number of patients. Any of these occurrences may harm our clinical trials and by extension, our business, financial condition and prospects.

Our product candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, if any.

Undesirable side effects caused by our product candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA, the EMA, the MHRA, the MHLW or other comparable regulatory authorities. The drug-related side effects could affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

Filgotinib, if approved or following approval, may have a labeling statement warning for male patients. In animal toxicology studies in the preclinical phase, filgotinib at an exposure dose above the approved dose in humans induced adverse effects on semen parameters. Adjacent to the filgotinib Phase 3 programs, we and Gilead are conducting dedicated male semen analysis studies in CD and UC patients (MANTA) and in RA, psoriatic arthritis, or PsA, and ankylosing spondylitis, or AS, patients (MANTA-RAy).

Even now when filgotinib has received regulatory approval or marketing authorization in certain jurisdictions, other regulatory authorities may impose dosing restrictions that differ from the approved dosing regimen in other jurisdictions.

Box warnings, labeling restrictions, dose limitations and similar restrictions on use could have a material adverse effect on our ability to commercialize filgotinib in those jurisdictions where such restrictions apply.

EMA announced that its Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) started an article 20 specific pharmacovigilance procedure to investigate whether certain serious risks associated with the JAK inhibitors Xeljanz (tofacitinib) and Olumiant (baricitinib) are associated with all JAK inhibitors authorized in the EU for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, including filgotinib. If the outcome of the EMA’s safety review results in amendments to the marketing authorization for filgotinib, other additional requirements that the EMA may put in place with respect to the development of JAK inhibitors generally, or other future actions by the EMA and other comparable regulatory authorities, then such delays or (perceived) adverse developments or results may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

If we lose orphan product exclusivity or are not able to obtain such status for future product candidates for which we seek this status, or if our competitors are able to obtain orphan product exclusivity before we do, we may not be able to obtain approval for our competing products for a significant period of time.

EMA
European Medicines Agency, in charge of European market authorization of new medications
FDA
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is an agency responsible for protecting and promoting public health and in charge of American market approval of new medications
Filgotinib
Formerly known as GLPG0634, commercial name is Jyseleca. Small molecule preferential JAK1 inhibitor, approved in RA in European Union, Great Britain, and Japan, and in UC in European Union and Great Britain. Application for approval for ulcerative colitis was filed in Japan. Filgotinib is partnered with Gilead. Filgotinib currently is in Phase 3 trials in CD, and in a Phase 4 trial in RA
GLPG0555
A JAK1 inhibitor currently in Phase 1b in osteoarthritis
GLPG2737
A compound currently in Phase 2 in ADPKD. This compound is part of the CF collaboration with AbbVie but Galapagos retained rights outside of CF
GLPG3121
A compound currently in Phase 1 targeting JAK1/TYK2 directed toward inflammation (IBD)
GLPG3667
A TYK2 kinase inhibitor discovered by us, topline results from the Phase 1b in psoriasis reported in July 2021
GLPG4399
A SIK3 inhibitor currently in Phase 1 directed toward inflammation
GLPG4716
A chitinase inhibitor inlicensed from OncoArendi in preparation for Phase 2 in IPF
MANTA
A Phase 2 semen parameter trial with filgotinib in male patients with CD or UC
MHLW
Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), in charge of Japanese market authorization of new medications
MHRA
Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in Great Britain
PRAC
Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee of the European Medicines Agency, responsible for assessing all aspects of risk management of human medicines
SIK
Salt-inducible kinase. This is the target family for the portfolio of molecules in the Toledo program